Categories

Kamami.pl - Official Raspberry Pi distributor

Shipping

Order and pay in

for same day shipping

New products


Digital image. Representation, compression, processing basics. JPEG and MPEG standards View larger

Digital image. Representation, compression, processing basics. JPEG and MPEG standards

Marek Domański

More details

ID: 184846

Add to wishlist

More info

A basic textbook, comprehensively addressing theoretical as well as practical issues related to digital image, especially moving pictures.
The book presents the acquisition of digital images and digital video signals, the types of representation of such signals, the compression of still and moving images, basic image processing operations and includes a brief introduction to the description of image content and the placement of watermarks in images. He discusses video signals found in standard digital television (SDTV) and high quality (HDTV) as well as stereoscopic and multi-view signals. Discussing currently used technical solutions, the author also took into account the latest scientific achievements. He devoted much attention to international standards, including, first of all, JPEG, JPEG-LS, JPEG 2000, JPEG-XR, H.263, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 compression standards, including AVC, SVC and MVC. The manual also applies to other standards, for example regarding image formats and video signals or image content description (MPEG-7). The lecture method makes it easier to learn the basics of digital image technique, which are used, among others, in digital television, in video surveillance systems and in image processing for industrial and biomedical applications.
Recipients: students of electronics, telecommunications, IT, automation and robotics at technical universities and other fields of study.


Table of Contents:
Foreword 11
Important designations 14
List of abbreviations and acronyms 15
Introduction 21
W.1. Image of natural and digital image processing 21
W.2. Image technique 24
W.3. Normalization in digital image 26
1. Basics of multidimensional signal theory 58
1.1. The concept of multidimensional signal 58
1.2. Spatial frequencies 63
1.3. Fourier transform of multivariate signals 65
1.3.1. Multidimensional Fourier transform 65
1.3.2. Two-dimensional Fourier transform 67
1.3.3. Properties of the two-dimensional Fourier transform 67
1.3.4. Interpretation of spatial frequencies in images 79
1.4. Image sampling 81
1.4.1. Rectangular sampling 81
1.4.2. Sampling with any sampling geometry 85
1.5. Discrete two-dimensional Fourier transform 88
1.5.1. Definition and properties 88
1.5.2. Calculation of discrete two-dimensional Fourier transforms 93
1.5.3. Discrete two-dimensional Fourier transform of images 96
1.6. Two-dimensional discrete cosine transform 100
1.6.1. One-dimensional discrete cosine transform 100
1.6.2. Two-dimensional discrete cosine transform - the term 102
1.6.3. Determination of two-dimensional discrete cosine transform images 105
1.7. Two-dimensional conversion Z 107
1.8. Two-dimensional discrete linear systems 110
1.8.1. Basic concepts 110
1.8.2. Two-dimensional LSI systems - description in the spatial domain 112
1.8.3. Two-dimensional LSI systems - description in the frequency domain 116
1.8.4. Stability of two-dimensional linear systems 121
1.9. Two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform 124
1.9.1. Subband analysis and synthesis 124
1.9.2. Complexes of analysis and synthesis filters 129
1.9.3. Implementations of filter assemblies 134
1.9.4. Wavelet and reverse transforming 139
1.10. Prediction 142
1.11. Quantization 147
1.11.1. Quantum scaling 147
1.11.2. Vector quantization 149
2. Digital representations of images 151
2.1. Visible light and its perception by humans 151
2.1.1. The human's visual system 151
2.1.2. Photometry 152
2.1.3. Perception of light by man 155
2.2. Digital representation of a monochrome image 156
2.3. Contrast correction - gamma correction 159
2.4. Colors and their representations 164
2.4.1. Colorful light and its perception 164
2.4.2. Representation of colored light with three basic components 166
2.4.3. RGB chip and its variations 168
2.4.4. Luminance and chrominences 175
2.4.5. Other color coordinate systems 182
2.4.6. Color indexing 185
2.4.7. Color management 189
2.4.8. Multi-range color representations 191
2.5. Analog continuous video signals 192
2.5.1. Interlace and Progressive Scanning Signals 192
2.5.2. A complete monochrome video signal 193
2.5.3. Color vision signals 196
2.5.4. A review of analog video signals 198
2.6. Digital video signals 201
2.6.1. Quantization of video samples 201
2.6.2. Aspect ratio of the image 202
2.6.3. Sampling of continuous video signals 203
2.6.4. Image formats - SDTV and HDTV 208
2.6.5. Sampling chrominance 210
2.6.6. Interfaces of digital video signals without compression 214
2.7. Image quality evaluation 216
2.7.1. Introduction 216
2.7.2. Subjective image quality assessment 217
2.7.3. Image quality assessment using the PSNR indicator 221
2.7.4. Methods of automatic image quality assessment 225
2.7.5. Summary 228
3. Cameras and monitors 229
3.1. Webcams 229
3.1.1. Construction of the camera 229
3.1.2. Sampling at time 233
3.1.3. Spatial sampling 236
3.1.4. Cameras for acquiring color images 238
3.1.5. The size of the 240 cameras
3.1.6. Output signals from 243 cameras
3.2. 243 monitors
4. Basic image processing operations 249
4.1. Point operations 249
4.1.1. Determination of point operations 249
4.1.2. Histograms 252
4.1.3. Enhancing contrast with point operations 254
4.1.4. Binarization of 256 images
4.2. Algebraic operations on images 257
4.3. Two-dimensional linear non-recursive filtration 257
4.4. Two-dimensional linear recursive filtration 270
4.5. Decimation and interpolation of the image 275
4.6. Non-linear image filtering 278
4.7. Geometric transformations of the image 284
4.8. Summary 284
5. Introduction to the processing of video sequences 286
5.1. Traffic estimation 286
5.1.1. Characteristics of the task 286
5.1.2. Methods using the principle of optical flow 290
5.1.3. Block fitting methods 293
5.2. Time domain filtration with motion compensation 302
5.3. Conversions of representation of video sequences 304
5.4. 306 resolution
5.5. Analysis of video sequences 306
6. Introduction to image compression 310
6.1. General issues 310
6.1.1. The importance of image compression 310
6.1.2. Image representation redundancy 313
6.1.3. Encoding and decoding of images 316
6.1.4. Comparing the efficiency of compression 319
6.1.5. Lossless codecs 322
6.1.6. Loss codecs 323
6.1.7. Intra-image and inter-frame coding 326
6.1.8. Pre-processing and final processing 328
6.1.9. Normalization for compression 329
6.1.10. Scalable encoding 330
6.1.11. Transcoding 333
6.1.12. Literature on compression 334
6.2. Entropy coding 334
6.2.1. Introduction to entropy coding 335
6.2.2. Huffman codes 336
6.2.3. Golomb codes and their variations 341
6.2.4. Arithmetic coding 344
6.2.5. Dictionary coding 348
6.3. String coding 349
7. Intra-image compression 351
7.1. Transformation coding and JPEG 351 standard
7.1.1. Lossy transformation coding of still images 352
7.1.2. Lossless encoding of still images using intra prediction 357
7.1.3. JPEG standard (JPEG-1) 358
7.1.4. Transformer sequential mode 359
7.1.5. Binary arithmetic coding in JPEG 367 standard
7.1.6. Transformative progressive mode 368
7.1.7. Hierarchical mode 368
7.1.8. Lossless mode 371
7.1.9. The syntax of data representing a compressed image 371
7.1.10. JPEG 374 extension
7.2. Wavelet coding and JPEG 2000 standard 374
7.2.1. Introduction 374
7.2.2. Compression technology in the JPEG 2000 376 standard
7.2.3. Pre-processing 376
7.2.4. Wavelet coding 378
7.2.5. Adaptive binary arithmetic coding 381
7.2.6. The syntax of the data representing the 382 compressed image
7.2.7. Summary 384
7.3. JPEG XR 385
7.4. Effectiveness of lossy JPEG, JPEG 2000 and JPEG XR 388 codecs
7.5. Other lossy compression techniques 393
7.6. Lossless and almost lossless compression in the JPEG-LS 394 standard
7.7. An overview of lossless compression techniques 396
8. Inter-image compression of video sequences 399
8.1. Hybrid coding of digital video sequences 399
8.1.1. Introduction 399
8.1.2. Adaptive character of hybrid coding 401
8.1.3. Intra-image coding of video sequences 403
8.1.4. Intra-image prediction with 404 motion compression
8.1.5. Images type B 409
8.1.6. Quantization of transform coefficients 413
8.1.7. Hierarchical structure of the stream of encoded data 413
8.1.8. Controlling the work of the hybrid encoder 416
8.1.9. Image distortions introduced by hybrid block coding 419
8.2. Review of the compression standards for digital video sequences 420
8.3. Compression of video sequences compliant with the MPEG-2 426 standard
8.3.1. MPEG-2 standard 427
8.3.2. MPEG-2 transport stream 427 8.3.3. Image compression in the MPEG-2 430 standard
8.3.4. Compression technique according to the main profile 432
8.3.5. Coding according to profile 4: 2: 2 438
8.3.6. Image interchange compression tools 438
8.3.7. Video stream of the MPEG-2 445 standard
8.3.8. Bit rate control 460
8.3.9. Effectiveness of MPEG-2 466 codecs
8.3.10. Summary 469
8.4. Other standards of the first and second generation 470
8.4.1. Standards of the first generation 470
8.4.2. Video sequence encoding as recommended by ITU-T H.263 473
8.4.3. Standard MPEG-4 477
8.5. Advanced Video Signal Coding - MPEG-4 AVC / H.264 483
8.5.1. Introduction 483
8.5.2. Profiles and levels of the AVC 485 standard
8.5.3. Advanced compression tools according to the AVC 488 standard
8.5.4. The structure of data produced by the AVC 509 encoder
8.5.5. Entry coding UVLC / CAVLC 515
8.5.6. Adaptive binary arithmetic coding CABAC 518
8.5.7. Controlling AVC 522 encoders
8.5.8. Effectiveness of MPEG-4AVC 525 compression
8.5.9. Transcoding of AVC 530 streams
8.5.10. Scalable Video Sequence Encoding SVC 531
8.5.11. Summary of issues regarding the AVC 532 standard
8.6. Other third generation image compression techniques 533
8.6.1. Standard VC-1 533
8.6.2. Standard AVS 538
8.6.3. VP8 538 codec
8.7. 4th Generation Compression Technique - HEVC 539
8.8. Other developmental techniques for compressing moving images 540
8.9. Summary 542
9. Stereoscopic and three-dimensional images 543
9.1 Spatial vision and stereoscopic images 543
9.1.1. Two-sided depth tips 544
9.1.2. Production of two-sided depth hints on flat screens 545
9.1.3. One-eyed depth tips 548
9.1.4. The use of unilateral depth guidance in technical systems 549
9.1.5. The practice of displaying stereoscopic images on flat screens 550
9.1.6. Summary 552
9.2. Presentation of stereoscopic images 553
9.2.1. Introduction 553
9.2.2. Devices using color separation 554
9.2.3. Snap devices 556
9.2.4. Polarizing devices 558
9.2.5. Autostereoscopic 560 monitors
9.2.6. Summary 564
9.3. Camera systems for acquisition of stereoscopic images 564
9.4. Compatible frame formats with stereoscopic images 568
9.5. Compression of stereoscopic images 573
9.6. Systems with stereoscopic and three-dimensional images 576
9.7. Multi-view and three-dimensional images 578
10. Description of the image content 584
10.1. Searching for image content 584
10.2. Metadata normalization 587
10.3. Image descriptors in the MPEG-7 589 standard
10.4. Summary 596
11. Watermarks in 597 images
11.1. General news 597
11.2. Examples of the use of watermarking 601
11.3. Basic variants of watermarking techniques 603
11.4. Exemplary watermarking techniques 605
Literature 611
Index 637